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PROTECTIONS THAT MUST BE ENFORCED. _____________________________________________________________________________ Contact Your Congressperson: http://www.house.gov/ Contact Your Senator: http://www/senate.gov/ _____________________________________________________________________________ The Declaration of Independence IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776. The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America, When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.-- That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed,---That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shown, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations , pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.-- Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations , all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world. He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good. He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them. He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only. He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures. He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people. He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within. He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands. He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers. He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries. He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance. He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures. He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power. He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation: For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us: For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States: For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world: For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent: For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury: For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies: For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments: For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever. He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us. He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people. He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation. He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands. He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions. In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people. Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends. We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor. ____________________________________________________________________________ The "Bill of Rights" are the first 10 amendments to the Federal Constitution. Read them until you have made them a part of you. The First 10 Amendments to the Constitution as Ratified by the States December 15, 1791 Preamble Congress OF THE United States begun and held at the City of New York, on Wednesday the Fourth of March, one thousand seven hundred and eighty nine. THE Conventions of a number of the States having at the time of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added: And as extending the ground of public confidence in the Government, will best insure the beneficent ends of its institution RESOLVED by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, two thirds of both Houses concurring, that the following Articles be proposed to the Legislatures of the several States, as Amendments to the Constitution of the United States, all or any of which Articles, when ratified by three fourths of the said Legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of the said Constitution; viz.: ARTICLES in addition to, and Amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America, proposed by Congress, and ratified by the Legislatures of the several States, pursuant to the fifth Article of the original Constitution. The Bill of Rights Amendment I Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances. Amendment II A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed. Amendment III No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law. Amendment IV The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. Amendment V No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation. Amendment VI In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense. Amendment VII In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law. Amendment VIII Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. Amendment IX The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. Amendment X The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people. _____________________________________________________________________________ The Constitution of the United States of America We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. Article I Section 1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. Section 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several states, and the electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislature. No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in which he shall be chosen. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several states which may be included within this union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each state shall have at least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the state of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three. When vacancies happen in the Representation from any state, the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies. The House of Representatives shall choose their speaker and other officers; and shall have the sole power of impeachment. Section 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each state, chosen by the legislature thereof , for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by resignation, or otherwise, during the recess of the legislature of any state, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies. No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state for which he shall be chosen. The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the United States. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two thirds of the members present. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit under the United States: but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment, according to law. Section 4. The times, places and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each state by the legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day. Section 5. Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties as each House may provide. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two thirds, expel a member. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either House on any question shall, at the desire of one fifth of those present, be entered on the journal. Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting. Section 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury of the United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other place. No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time: and no person holding any office under the United States, shall be a member of either House during his continuance in office. Section 7. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other Bills. Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the President of the United States; if he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law. Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill. Section 8. The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States; To borrow money on the credit of the United States; To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes; To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States; To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures; To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States; To establish post offices and post roads; To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries; To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court; To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offenses against the law of nations; To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water; To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years; To provide and maintain a navy; To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces; To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions; To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the states respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress; To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, and other needful buildings;--And To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof. Section 9. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it. No bill of attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed. No capitation, or other direct, tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one state over those of another: nor shall vessels bound to, or from, one state, be obliged to enter, clear or pay duties in another. No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States: and no person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state. Section 10. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility. No state shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection laws: and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress. No state shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay. Article II Section 1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same term, be elected, as follows: Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector. The electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose by ballot one of them for President; and if no person have a majority, then from the five highest on the list the said House shall in like manner choose the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each state having one vote; A quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person having the greatest number of votes of the electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice President. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be the same throughout the United States. No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States, at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty five years, and been fourteen Years a resident within the United States. In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation or inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a President shall be elected. The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services, a compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the United States, or any of them. Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or affirmation:--"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States." Section 2. The President shall be commander in chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several states, when called into the actual service of the United States; he may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States, except in cases of impeachment. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law: but the Congress may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments. The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at the end of their next session. Section 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the state of the union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the United States. Section 4. The President, Vice President and all civil officers of the United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. Article III Section 1. The judicial power of the United States, shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behaviour, and shall, at stated times, receive for their services, a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office. Section 2. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority;--to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls;--to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction;--to controversies to which the United States shall be a party;--to controversies between two or more states;--between a state and citizens of another state;--between citizens of different states;--between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants of different states, and between a state, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens or subjects. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a state shall be party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and under such regulations as the Congress shall make. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any state, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed. Section 3. Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court. The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture except during the life of the person attainted. Article IV Section 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state. And the Congress may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof. Section 2. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several states. A person charged in any state with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found in another state, shall on demand of the executive authority of the state from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the state having jurisdiction of the crime. No person held to service or labor in one state, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due. Section 3. New states may be admitted by the Congress into this union; but no new states shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other state; nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states, or parts of states, without the consent of the legislatures of the states concerned as well as of the Congress. The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular state. Section 4. The United States shall guarantee to every state in this union a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion; and on application of the legislature, or of the executive (when the legislature cannot be convened) against domestic violence. Article V The Congress, whenever two thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the legislatures of two thirds of the several states, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three fourths of the several states, or by conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress; provided that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article; and that no state, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate. Article VI All debts contracted and engagements entered into, before the adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation. This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound by oath or affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States Article VII The ratification of the conventions of nine states, shall be sufficient for the establishment of this Constitution between the states so ratifying the same. _________________________________________________________ INDUCED SLAVERY 2007 DOCUMENTED VIOLATIONS A fter the Civil War, the Thirteenth Amendment was added to the United States Constitution, which prohibited involuntary servitude such as peonage for all but convicted criminals. Congress also passed various laws to protect the constitutional rights of Southern blacks, making those who violated such rights by conspiracy, by trespass, or in disguise, guilty of an offense punishable by ten years in prison and civil disability. Unlawful use of state law to subvert rights under the Federal Constitution was made punishable by fine or a year's imprisonment. But up till 1960 some sharecroppers in Southern states were forced to continue working to pay off old debts or to pay taxes. Southern states allowed this in order to preserve sharecropping . _____________________________________________________________________________ Congressional Commission on the Abolition of Modern-Day Slavery Act (Introduced in House) HR 2522 http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c110:H.R.2522: To establish a congressional Commission on the Abolition of Modern-Day Slavery. IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES May 24, 2007 Mr. LEWIS of Georgia (for himself, Mr. SMITH of New Jersey, Mrs. MALONEY of New York, Mrs. DRAKE, Ms. EDDIE BERNICE JOHNSON of Texas, Mr. ENGEL, Ms. NORTON, Mr. PITTS, Mr. GRIJALVA, Mr. MCNULTY, Mr. SCOTT of Virginia, Mr. HONDA, Ms. CLARKE, Ms. JACKSON-LEE of Texas, Mr. CUMMINGS, Mr. COHEN, Mrs. TAUSCHER, Mr. JOHNSON of Georgia, Mr. CONYERS, and Ms. SCHAKOWSKY) introduced the following bill; which was referred to the Committee on Foreign Affairs, and in addition to the Committees on the Judiciary, Ways and Means, and Oversight and Government Reform, for a period to be subsequently determined by the Speaker, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the committee concerned -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- A BILL To establish a congressional Commission on the Abolition of Modern-Day Slavery. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE. This Act may be cited as the `Congressional Commission on the Abolition of Modern-Day Slavery Act'. SEC. 2. MODERN-DAY SLAVERY. In this Act, the term ` modern-day slavery' means the status or condition of a person who is under the control of another person, where that control is enforced by violence, or psychological coercion, and who is exploited through involuntary servitude , forced labor, debt bondage or bonded labor, serfdom, peonage, trafficking in persons for forced labor or for sexual exploitation (including child sex tourism), forced marriage, or other similar means. SEC. 3. FINDINGS. Congress makes the following findings: (1) Modern-day slavery takes many forms , including chattel slavery or slavery by descent, and the exploitation occurs in a myriad of situations, including in the agricultural, commercial sex, construction, manufacturing, and service industries, as well as in domestic servitude. (2) The perpetrators of modern-day slavery violate the dignity of men, women, and children, using violence that at times results in death, sexual abuse, rape, torture, dangerous and degrading working conditions, poor nutrition, drug and alcohol addiction, and psychological trauma. (3) According to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights `No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms. '. (4) The United States and the international community have acknowledged that modern-day slavery must be abolished in accordance with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; the Slavery, Servitude, Forced Labour and Similar Institutions and Practices Convention of 1926; the Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery; the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography; the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflicts; the Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour; the Abolition of Forced Labour Convention; and the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, Supplementing the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime. (5) The Declaration of Independence recognizes the inherent dignity and worth of all people and states that all people are created equal and are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights. (6) The 13th amendment to the Constitution of the United States recognizes that `Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.'. (7) The United States has given particular priority to combating trafficking in persons, a form of modern-day slavery, through the enactment of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (division A of Public Law 106-386) and the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2003 (Public Law 108-193) and the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-164). (8) The importation into the United States of goods mined, produced, or manufactured by forced or indentured labor, including forced or indentured child labor, is prohibited under the Tariff Act of 1930. SEC. 4. ESTABLISHMENT OF COMMISSION. (a) Establishment- There is established a congressional Commission on the Abolition of Modern-Day Slavery (in this Act referred to as the `Commission'). (b) Membership- (1) COMPOSITION- The Commission shall be composed of 12 members, of whom-- (A) 3 shall be appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives; (B) 3 shall be appointed by the majority leader of the Senate; (C) 3 shall be appointed by the minority leader of the House of Representatives; and (D) 3 shall be appointed by the minority leader of the Senate. (2) QUALIFICATIONS- Members of the Commission shall be individuals with demonstrated expertise or experience in combating modern-day slavery. (3) DATE- The appointments of the members of the Commission shall be made not later than 30 days after the date of enactment of this Act. (c) Period of Appointment; Vacancies- Members shall be appointed for the life of the Commission. Any vacancy in the Commission shall not affect its powers, but shall be filled in the same manner as the original appointment. (d) Co-Chairpersons- The Speaker of the House of Representatives shall designate 1 of the members appointed under subsection (b)(1)(A) as a co-chairperson of the Commission. The majority leader of the Senate shall designate 1 of the members appointed under subsection (b)(1)(B) as a co-chairperson of the Commission. (e) Initial Meeting- Not later than 60 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Commission shall hold its first meeting. (f) Meetings- The Commission shall meet at the call of either Co-chairperson. (g) Quorum- A majority of the members of the Commission shall constitute a quorum, but a lesser number of members may meet or hold hearings. SEC. 5. DUTIES OF THE COMMISSION. (a) Study- (1) IN GENERAL- The Commission shall-- (A) conduct a thorough study of modern-day slavery in all its forms and why it still exists, including the failure by authorities to enforce laws prohibiting slavery and prosecuting the perpetrators of slavery, corruption among officials, and the vulnerability of certain populations, such as those who are discriminated against because of gender, ethnicity or caste, and those in areas of conflict and post conflict, transitioning states, or states undergoing sudden political upheaval, economic collapse, civil unrest, internal armed conflict, chronic unemployment, widespread poverty, or manmade or natural disasters; (B) review programs of relevant governmental agencies with respect to modern-day-slavery, including the Office of the United States Trade Representative, the Department of Commerce, the Department of Defense, the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Homeland Security, the Department of Labor, the Department of the Treasury, the United States Agency for International Development, the Department of State, the President's Interagency Task Force to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, and the Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center; (C) examine efforts undertaken by foreign countries and multilateral organizations to prevent or combat modern-day slavery in all its forms, prosecute the perpetrators or protect its victims, and identify those countries with the most significant number of victims of modern-day slavery; and (D) convene additional experts from relevant nongovernmental organizations as part of the Commission's review. (2) GOALS- Based on its findings under paragraph (1), the Commission shall-- (A) advise the Congress on how the United States could lend support to the efforts to eradicate modern-day slavery in all its forms; (B) provide a comprehensive evaluation of comparative models and strategies to prevent modern-day slavery, rescue and rehabilitate victims of modern-day slavery, prosecute offenders , i ncrease accountability within countries that tolerate modern-day slavery, develop international cooperation to combat modern slavery, and increase education about modern-day slavery in all its forms, particularly among vulnerable populations; (C) provide a comprehensive evaluation of current United States trade policy's effect on modern slavery, including a list of the top ten countries with the highest number of slaves within their borders, along with the precise nature of the United States trade relationship with each country; (D) provide a comprehensive evaluation of the effectiveness of United States laws prohibiting the importation of goods manufactured or produced in whole or in part through forced labor or child labor, including a list of the five categories of slave-made goods that most regularly are imported into the United States, and any related law enforcement action taken to prevent their importation; (E) provide a comprehensive evaluation of United States Government procurement policies and practices regarding the procurement of slave-made goods or services through grantees, contractors, or subcontractors; and (F) examine the economic impact on communities and countries that demonstrate measured success in fighting modern-day slavery in all its forms. (b) Recommendations- The Commission shall recommend legislative and administrative actions necessary for the most effective ways to combat and eliminate modern-day slavery in all its forms, including incorporating best practices into all United States Government anti-slavery programs for prevention, rescue and rehabilitation, prosecution, increasing accountability within governments that tolerate slavery, developing international cooperation to combat modern-day slavery, and increasing education about modern-day slavery, particularly among vulnerable populations. The Commission shall also determine the nature of what constitutes appropriate relations with countries that tolerate modern-day slavery in any form and make specific recommendations to eliminate the importation of slave-made goods and the United States Government's procurement of slave-made goods and services. (c) Report- Not later than 11 months after the date of enactment of this Act, the Commission shall submit to the Speaker and minority leader of the House of Representatives and the majority leader and minority leader of the Senate, a report containing the results of the study and other activities conducted under subsection (a) and the recommendations developed under subsection (b). SEC. 6. POWERS OF THE COMMISSION. (a) Hearings- The Commission may hold such hearings, sit and act at such times and places, take such testimony, and receive such evidence as the Commission considers necessary to carry out this Act. (b) Information From Governmental Agencies- The Commission may secure directly from any department or agency such information as the Commission considers necessary to carry out this Act. Upon request of either co-chairperson of the Commission, the head of such department or agency shall furnish such information to the Commission. SEC. 7. COMMISSION PERSONNEL MATTERS. (a) Compensation of Members- Each member of the Commission who is not an officer or employee of the Federal Government shall be compensated at a rate equal to the daily equivalent of the annual rate of basic pay prescribed for level IV of the Executive Schedule under section 5313 of title 5, United States Code, for each day (including travel time) during which such member is engaged in the performance of the duties of the Commission. All members of the Commission who are officers or employees of the United States shall serve without compensation in addition to that received for their services as officers or employees of the United States. (b) Travel Expenses- The members of the Commission shall be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, at rates authorized for employees of agencies under subchapter I of chapter 57 of title 5, United States Code, while away from their homes or regular places of business in the performance of services for the Commission. (c) Staff- (1) IN GENERAL- The co-chairpersons of the Commission, acting jointly, may, without regard to the civil service laws and regulations, appoint and terminate an executive director and such other additional personnel as may be necessary to enable the Commission to perform its duties. The employment of an executive director shall be subject to confirmation by the Commission. (2) COMPENSATION- The co-chairpersons of the Commission, acting jointly, may fix the compensation of the executive director and other personnel without regard to chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5, United Sates Code, relating to classification of positions and General Schedule pay rates, except that the rate of pay for the executive director and other personnel may not exceed the rate payable for level V of the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of such title. (d) Detail of Government Employees- Federal Government employees may be detailed to the Commission without reimbursement, and such detail shall be without interruption or loss of civil service status or privilege. (e) Procurement of Temporary and Intermittent Services- The co-chairpersons of the Commission, acting jointly, may procure temporary and intermittent services under section 3109(b) of title 5, United States Code, at rates for individuals which do not exceed the daily equivalent of the annual rate of basic pay prescribed for level V of the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of such title. SEC. 8. TERMINATION OF THE COMMISSION. The Commission shall terminate 90 days after the date on which the Commission submits its report under section 5(c). SEC. 9. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS. (a) In General- There are authorized to be appropriated to the Commission for fiscal year 2008 such sums as may be necessary to carry out this Act. (b) Availability- Any sums appropriated under the authorization contained in this section shall remain available, without fiscal year limitation, until expended. _____________________________________________________________________________ H.R.1592 Title: To provide Federal assistance to States, local jurisdictions, and Indian tribes to prosecute hate crimes , and for other purposes. Sponsor: Rep Conyers, John, Jr. [MI-14] (introduced 3/20/2007) Cosponsors (171) Related Bills: H.RES.364, S.1105 Latest Major Action: 5/7/2007 Referred to Senate committee. Status: Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. House Reports: 110-113 ________________________________________ SUMMARY AS OF: 5/3/2007--Passed House amended. (There are 2 other summaries) Local Law Enforcement Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 2007 - (Sec. 3) Defines "hate crime" as a violent act causing death or bodily injury because of the actual or perceived race, color, religion, national origin, sexual orientation, gender, gender identity or disability of the victim. (Sec. 4) Authorizes the Attorney General, at the request of a state, local, or Tribal law enforcement agency, to provide technical, forensic, prosecutorial, or other assistance in the criminal investigation or prosecution of any crime that: (1) constitutes a crime of violence; (2) constitutes a felony under state, local, or Tribal laws; and (3) is motivated by prejudice based on the actual or perceived race, color, religion, national origin, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability of the victim or is a violation of the state, local, or Tribal hate crime laws. Requires the Attorney General to give priority for assistance to crimes committed by offenders who have committed crimes in more than one state and to rural jurisdictions that have difficulty covering extraordinary investigation or prosecution expenses. Authorizes the Attorney General to award grants to state, local, and Indian law enforcement agencies for extraordinary expenses associated with the investigation and prosecution of hate crimes. Requires the Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs to work closely with grant recipients to ensure that the concerns and needs of all affected parties under the grant program are addressed. Sets forth requirements and deadlines for grant applications. Limits grant amounts to $100,000 for any single jurisdiction in any one-year period. Requires the Attorney General to submit a report to Congress on the grant program by December 31, 2008. Authorizes appropriations for FY2008-FY2009. (Sec. 5) Authorizes the Office of Justice Programs to award grants to state, local, or Tribal programs designed to combat hate crimes committed by juveniles. Authorizes appropriations. (Sec. 6) Authorizes appropriations for FY2008-FY2010 for additional personnel to prevent and respond to hate crime violations. (Sec. 7) Amends the federal criminal code to impose a fine and/or prison term of up to 10 years on any person who willfully causes bodily injury to any person, or who, through the use of fire, a firearm, or an explosive or incendiary device, attempts to cause bodily harm to any person, because of the actual or perceived race, color, religion, national origin, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability of such person. Requires certification by the Attorney General or other Department of Justice official of certain findings relating to an alleged hate crime prior to initiating a prosecution for such crime. Excludes evidence of expression or association of a defendant in a hate crime prosecution at trial, unless such evidence specifically relates to the offense being prosecuted. (Sec. 8) Provides that nothing in this Act shall be construed to prohibit expressive conduct or activities protected by the First Amendment. _________________________________________ Emmett Till Unsolved Civil Rights Crime Act of 2007 (Placed on Calendar in Senate H. R. 923 IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES June 21, 2007 June 26, 2007 Read twice and placed on the calendar http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?c110:4:./temp/~c110taVtDF: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- AN ACT To provide for the investigation of certain unsolved civil rights crimes, and for other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE. This Act may be cited as the `Emmett Till Unsolved Civil Rights Crime Act of 2007'. SEC. 2. SENSE OF CONGRESS. It is the sense of Congress that all authorities with jurisdiction, including the Federal Bureau of Investigation and other entities within the Department of Justice, should-- (1) expeditiously investigate unsolved civil rights murders, due to the amount of time that has passed since the murders and the age of potential witnesses; and (2) provide all the resources necessary to ensure timely and thorough investigations in the cases involved. SEC. 3. DEPUTY CHIEF OF THE CRIMINAL SECTION OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS DIVISION. (a) In General- The Attorney General shall designate a Deputy Chief in the Criminal Section of the Civil Rights Division of the Department of Justice. (b) Responsibility- (1) IN GENERAL- The Deputy Chief shall be responsible for coordinating the investigation and prosecution of violations of criminal civil rights statutes that occurred not later than December 31, 1969, and resulted in a death. (2) COORDINATION- In investigating a complaint under paragraph (1), the Deputy Chief may coordinate investigative activities with State and local law enforcement officials. (c) Study and Report- (1) STUDY- The Attorney General shall annually conduct a study of the cases under the jurisdiction of the Deputy Chief or under the jurisdiction of the Supervisory Special Agent and, in conducting the study, shall determine-- (A) the number of open investigations within the Department for violations of criminal civil rights statutes that occurred not later than December 31, 1969; (B) the number of new cases opened pursuant to this Act since the previous year's study; (C) the number of unsealed Federal cases charged within the study period, including the case names, the jurisdiction in which the charges were brought, and the date the charges were filed; (D) the number of cases referred by the Department to a State or local law enforcement agency or prosecutor within the study period, the number of such cases that resulted in State charges being filed, the jurisdiction in which such charges were filed, the date the charges were filed, and if a jurisdiction declines to prosecute or participate in an investigation of a case so referred, the fact it did so; (E) the number of cases within the study period that were closed without Federal prosecution, the case names of unsealed Federal cases, the dates the cases were closed, and the relevant federal statutes; (F) the number of attorneys who worked, in whole or in part, on any case described in subsection (b)(1); and (G) the applications submitted for grants under section 5, the award of such grants, and the purposes for which the grant amount were expended. (2) REPORT- Not later than 6 months after the date of enactment of this Act, and each year thereafter, the Attorney General shall prepare and submit to Congress a report containing the results of the study conducted under paragraph (1). SEC. 4. SUPERVISORY SPECIAL AGENT IN THE CIVIL RIGHTS UNIT OF THE FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION. (a) In General- The Attorney General shall designate a Supervisory Special Agent in the Civil Rights Unit of the Federal Bureau of Investigation of the Department of Justice. (b) Responsibility- (1) IN GENERAL- The Supervisory Special Agent shall be responsible for investigating violations of criminal civil rights statutes that occurred not later than December 31, 1969, and resulted in a death. (2) COORDINATION- In investigating a complaint under paragraph (1), the Supervisory Special Agent may coordinate the investigative activities with State and local law enforcement officials. SEC. 5. GRANTS TO STATE AND LOCAL LAW ENFORCEMENT. (a) In General- The Attorney General may award grants to State or local law enforcement agencies for expenses associated with the investigation and prosecution by them of criminal offenses, involving civil rights, that occurred not later than December 31, 1969, and resulted in a death. (b) Authorization of Appropriations- There are authorized to be appropriated $ 2,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 2017 to carry out this section. SEC. 6. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS. (a) In General- There are authorized to be appropriated, in addition to any other amounts otherwise authorized to be appropriated for this purpose, to the Attorney General $10,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 2017 for the purpose of investigating and prosecuting violations of criminal civil rights statutes that occurred not later than December 31, 1969, and resulted in a death. These funds shall be allocated by the Attorney General to the Deputy Chief of the Criminal Section of the Civil Rights Division and the Supervisory Special Agent of the Civil Rights Unit of the Federal Bureau of Investigation in order to advance the purposes set forth in this Act. (b) Community Relations Service of the Department of Justice- In addition to any amounts authorized to be appropriated under title XI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000h et seq.), there are authorized to be appropriated to the Community Relations Service of the Department of Justice $1,500,000 for fiscal year 2008 and each subsequent fiscal year, to enable the Service (in carrying out the functions described in title X of such Act (42 U.S.C. 2000g et seq.)) to provide technical assistance by bringing together law enforcement agencies and communities in the investigation of violations of criminal civil rights statutes, in cases described in section 4(b). SEC. 7. DEFINITION OF `CRIMINAL CIVIL RIGHTS STATUTES'. In this Act, the term `criminal civil rights statutes' means-- (1) section 241 of title 18, United States Code (relating to conspiracy against rights) ; (2) section 242 of title 18, United States Code (relating to deprivation of rights under color of law) ; (3) section 245 of title 18, United States Code ( relating to federally protected activities); (4) sections 1581 and 1584 of title 18, United States Code ( relating to involuntary servitude and peonage); (5) section 901 of the Fair Housing Act ( 42 U.S.C. 3631); and (6) any other Federal law that-- (A) was in effect on or before December 31, 1969 ; and (B) the Criminal Section of the Civil Rights Division of the Department of Justice enforced, before the date of enactment of this Act. SEC. 8. SUNSET. Sections 2 through 6 of this Act shall cease to have effect at the end of fiscal year 2017. SEC. 9. AUTHORITY OF INSPECTORS GENERAL. Title XXXVII of the Crime Control Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 5779 et seq.) is amended by adding at the end the following: `SEC. 3703. AUTHORITY OF INSPECTORS GENERAL. `(a) In General- An Inspector General appointed under section 3 or 8G of the Inspector General Act of 1978 (5 U.S.C. App.) may authorize staff to assist the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children-- `(1) by conducting reviews of inactive case files to develop recommendations for further investigations; and `(2) by engaging in similar activities. `(b) Limitations- `(1) PRIORITY- An Inspector General may not permit staff to engage in activities described in subsection (a) if such activities will interfere with the duties of the Inspector General under the Inspector General Act of 1978 (5 U.S.C. App.). `(2) FUNDING- No additional funds are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section.'. Passed the House of Representatives June 20, 2007. ______________________________ RESTORE HOUSE RESOLUTION: HR 2977 http://www.fas.org/sgp/congress/2001/hr2977.html H. R. 2977 To preserve the cooperative, peaceful uses of space for the benefit of all humankind by permanently prohibiting the basing of weapons in space by the United States, and to require the President to take action to adopt and implement a world treaty banning space-based weapons. IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES October 2, 2001 Mr. KUCINICH introduced the following bill; which was referred to the Committee on Science, and in addition to the Committees on Armed Services, and International Relations, for a period to be subsequently determined by the Speaker, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the committee concerned A BILL To preserve the cooperative, peaceful uses of space for the benefit of all humankind by permanently prohibiting the basing of weapons in space by the United States, and to require the President to take action to adopt and implement a world treaty banning space-based weapons. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE. This Act may be cited as the `Space Preservation Act of 2001'. SEC. 2. REAFFIRMATION OF POLICY ON THE PRESERVATION OF PEACE IN SPACE. Congress reaffirms the policy expressed in section 102(a) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (42 U.S.C. 2451(a)), stating that it `is the policy of the United States that activities in space should be devoted to peaceful purposes for the benefit of all mankind.'. SEC. 3. PERMANENT BAN ON BASING OF WEAPONS IN SPACE. The President shall-- (1) implement a permanent ban on space-based weapons of the United States and remove from space any existing space-based weapons of the United States; and (2) immediately order the permanent termination of research and development, testing, manufacturing, production, and deployment of all space-based weapons of the United States and their components. SEC. 4. WORLD AGREEMENT BANNING SPACE-BASED WEAPONS. The President shall direct the United States representatives to the United Nations and other international organizations to immediately work toward negotiating, adopting, and implementing a world agreement banning space-based weapons. SEC. 5. REPORT. The President shall submit to Congress not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, and every 90 days thereafter, a report on-- (1) the implementation of the permanent ban on space-based weapons required by section 3; and (2) progress toward negotiating, adopting, and implementing the agreement described in section 4. SEC. 6. NON SPACE-BASED WEAPONS ACTIVITIES. Nothing in this Act may be construed as prohibiting the use of funds for-- (1) space exploration; (2) space research and development; (3) testing, manufacturing, or production that is not related to space-based weapons or systems; or (4) civil, commercial, or defense activities (including communications, navigation, surveillance, reconnaissance, early warning, or remote sensing) that are not related to space-based weapons or systems. SEC. 7. DEFINITIONS. In this Act: (1) The term `space' means all space extending upward from an altitude greater than 60 kilometers above the surface of the earth and any celestial body in such space. (2)(A) The terms `weapon' and `weapons system' mean a device capable of any of the following: (i) Damaging or destroying an object (whether in outer space, in the atmosphere, or on earth) by-- (I) firing one or more projectiles to collide with that object; (II) detonating one or more explosive devices in close proximity to that object; (III) directing a source of energy (including molecular or atomic energy, subatomic particle beams, electromagnetic radiation , plasma, or extremely low frequency (ELF) or ultra low frequency (ULF) energy radiation) against that object; or (IV) any other unacknowledged or as yet undeveloped means. (ii)I nflicting death or injury on, or damaging or destroying, a person (or the biological life, bodily health, mental health, or physical and economic well-being of a person)-- (I) through the use of any of the means described in clause (i) or subparagraph (B); (II) through the use of land-based, sea-based, or space-based systems using radiation, electromagnetic, psychotronic, sonic, laser, or other energies directed at individual persons or targeted populations for the purpose of information war, mood management, or mind control of such persons or populations; or (III) by expelling chemical or biological agents in the vicinity of a person. (B) Such terms include exotic weapons systems such as-- (i) electronic, psychotronic, or information weapons; (ii) chemtrails; (iii) high altitude ultra low frequency weapons systems; (iv) plasma, electromagnetic, sonic, or ultrasonic weapons; (v) laser weapons systems; (vi) strategic, theater, tactical, or extraterrestrial weapons; and (vii) chemical, biological, environmental, climate, or tectonic weapons. (C) The term exotic weapons systems' includes weapons designed to damage space or natural ecosystems (such as the ionosphere and upper atmosphere) or climate, weather, and tectonic systems with the purpose of inducing damage or destruction upon a target population or region on earth or in space. _____________________________________________________________________________ RESTORE HR 1026 http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c109:H.RES.1026: H. RES. 1026 For the re-opening of investigative hearings into the Counter-Intelligence Program (COINTELPRO) and other intelligence and law enforcement programs and agencies, and an expansion of those hearings to include renewal of previously curtailed abuses, and other activities sanctioned by the USA PATRIOT ACT. IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES September 20, 2006 Ms. MCKINNEY submitted the following resolution; which was referred to the Select Committee on Intelligence (Permanent Select), and in addition to the Committee on the Judiciary, for a period to be subsequently determined by the Speaker, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the committee concerned RESOLUTION For the re-opening of investigative hearings into the Counter-Intelligence Program (COINTELPRO) and other intelligence and law enforcement programs and agencies, and an expansion of those hearings to include renewal of previously curtailed abuses, and other activities sanctioned by the USA PATRIOT ACT. Whereas the Congress affirms both constitutional and international law and all existing legislation and resolutions that protect, defend, and assert human and civil rights; Whereas the Congress denounces the criminalization of political expression; Whereas the Congress condemns any abuse of human, civil, and constitutional rights undertaken by Federal, State, or local law enforcement agencies and agents; Whereas the Congress acknowledges the violations of law perpetrated by the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) conducted under the Counter Intelligence Program (COINTELPRO), and other intelligence agency and law enforcement programs such as CHAOS, GARDEN PLOT, CABLE SPLICER, LANTERN SPIKE, and others, which targeted the leadership of progressive social movements and implemented extra-constitutional aggregations of executive power or martial law; Whereas the Congress recognizes the findings of the Church Committee which identified COINTELPRO and related activities as an illegal, extra-judicial effort designed to disrupt and destroy opposition groups and movements, and anti-war protest, among others; Whereas the Congress regrets that the government investigations stopped short of making recommendations for relief for the victims of COINTELPRO and, as a result, dozens still remain imprisoned, unjustly incarcerated as the result of FBI operations to `neutralize' the leadership of the civil rights movement; and Whereas the Congress recognizes that such abuses have been renewed in the United States under special Executive branch orders and mandates following the attacks of 9/11, by existing and newly formed intelligence, security and law enforcement agencies including but not limited to the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), National Security Agency (NSA), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Transportation Security Agency (TSA), and Director of National Intelligence (DNI), and by certain provisions of the USA PATRIOT ACT and related legislation: Now, therefore, be it Resolved, That the U.S. Congress will release any related classified documents that do not involve compromise of an existing source, agent, or method, and renew and administer hearings by all appropriate committees and subcommittees of Congress, or through the formation of a select oversight committee to investigate the past abuses and appropriate legal relief due to the victims of such abuses carried out under COINTELPRO and related programs by other intelligence and law enforcement agencies, and to identify any renewal of similar abuses following the attacks of 9/11 by any Federal or local agencies or Executive branch orders, or under the provisions of the USA PATRIOT ACT; and Be it further resolved, That Congress intends to renew legislation that will end these abuses and fully protect the constitutional, civil, and human rights of all U.S. citizens and others who fall under the protection of our laws and international laws and treaties the United States is signatory to. ____________________________________________________________________ Hate Crime Laws in the United States From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Hate crime laws in the United States (also known as bias crimes) protect against crimes motivated by feelings of enmity or animus against a protected class. Although state and federal laws vary, typical protected characteristics are race, religion, ethnicity, and national origin. Sometimes gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability are included as well. Contents Federal law o1.1 Federal prosecution of hate crimes 1.1.1 1969 law 1.1.2 Hate Crime Sentencing Enhancement Act (1994) 1.1.3 Attempted expansion of 1969 law o1.2 Data collection statutes 1.2.1 Hate Crime Statistics Act (1990) 1.2.2 Campus Hate Crimes Right to Know Act of 1997 •2 State laws •3 Prevalence of hate crimes •4 Hate crime laws debate •5 References •6 External links Federal law Current statutes permit federal prosecution of hate crimes committed on the basis of a person's race, color, religion, or nation origin when engaging in a federally protected activity (see 1969 law, infra). Legislation is currently pending that would add gender, sexual orientation, gender-identity, and disability to this list, as well as remove the prerequisite that the victim be engaging in a federally protected activity (see attempted expansion, infra). The DOJ/FBI, as well as campus security authorities, are required to collect and publish hate crime statistics (see Hate Crime Satistics Act, infra and Campus Hate Crimes Right to Know Act, infra). Federal prosecution of hate crimes 1969 law 18 U.S.C. 245 (b)(2), enacted in 1969, permits federal prosecution of people who "by force or threat of force willfully injures, intimidates or interferes with... any person because of his race, color, religion or national origin and because he is or has been" attempting to engage in one of six types of federally protected activities, such as voting or going to school. Penalties for hate crimes involving firearms are prison terms of up to 10 years, while crimes involving kidnapping, sexual assault, or murder can bring life terms or the death penalty.[1] Appellant courts have upheld the constitutionality of the law,[2] and the Supreme Court has declined to review those decisions.[3] Courts have also held that the law provides for criminal sanctions only, and does not create a cause of action for civil liability.[4] Hate Crime Sentencing Enhancement Act (1994) The Hate Crime Sentencing Enhancement Act, enacted in 28 U.S.C. 944 note Sec. 280003, requires the United States Sentencing Commission to increase the penalties for hate crimes committed on the basis of the actual or perceived race, color, religion, national origin, ethnicity, gender, disability, or sexual orientation of any person. In 1995, the Sentencing Commission implemented these guidelines, which only apply to federal crimes.[5] [edit] Attempted expansion of 1969 law Main article: Local Law Enforcement Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 2007 On May 3, 2007, the House of Representatives passed the Local Law Enforcement Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 2007 (LLEHCPA), HR 1592, which would expand existing United States federal hate crime law to include crimes motivated by a victim's actual or perceived gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability, and which would drop the prerequisite that the victim be engaging in a federally-protected activity. Similar legislation is expected to pass in the Senate, but President Bush has indicated he may veto the legislation if it reaches his desk.[6] This would be President Bush's fourth veto. The LLEHCPA has been introduced in substantially similar form in each Congress since the 105th Congress in 1999, but has never made it into law. The 2007 bill expands on the earlier versions (originally called the Local Law Enforcement Enhancement Act) by including transgender provisions and making it explicit that the law should not be interpreted to restrict people's freedom of speech or association.[7] Hate Crime Statistics Act (1990) Main article: Hate Crime Statistics Act The Hate Crime Statistics Act, 28 U.S.C. 534, [1] requires the Attorney General to collect data on crimes committed because of the victim's race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or ethnicity. The bill was signed into law in 1990 by George H. W. Bush, and was the first federal statute to "recognize and name gay, lesbian and bisexual people."[8] Since 1992, the Department of Justice and the FBI have jointly published an annual report on hate crime statistics.[9] In 1994 Congress expanded the scope to include crimes based on disability, and in 1996 Congress permanently reauthorized the Act. Campus Hate Crimes Right to Know Act of 1997 The Campus Hate Crimes Right to Know Act of 1997, 20 U.S.C. 1092(f)(1)(F)(ii)], requires campus security authorities to collect and report data on hate crimes committed on the basis of race, gender, religion, sexual orientation, ethnicity, or disability. State laws 45 states and the District of Columbia have statutes criminalizing various types of bias-motivated violence or intimidation (the exceptions are AR, GA, IN, SC, and WY). Each of these statutes covers bias on the basis of race, religion, and ethnicity; 32 of them cover sexual orientation; 32 cover disability; 28 cover gender; 13 cover age; 11 cover transgender/gender-identity; 5 cover political affiliation.[10] 31 states and the District of Columbia have statutes creating a civil cause of action, in addition to the criminal penalty, for similar acts.[10] 27 states and the District of Columbia have statutes requiring the state to collect hate crime statistics; 16 of these cover sexual orientation.[10] In Wisconsin v. Mitchell (1993) the Supreme Court unanimously held that state penalty-enhancement laws for hate crimes were constitutional and did not violate First Amendment rights to freedom of thought and expression. [edit] Prevalence of hate crimes The DOJ and the FBI have kept statistics on hate crimes since 1992 in accordance with the Hate Crime Statistics Act. According to these reports, of the over 113,000 hate crimes since 1991, 55% were motivated by racial bias, 17% by religious bias, 14% sexual orientation bias, 14% ethnicity bias, and 1% disability bias.[11] For example, in 2004,[12] there were 7,649 criminal hate crime incidents, out of 1,367,009 violent crimes.[13] In perspective, in 2003 there were 4,500 accidental workplace fatalities and 13,900 fatalities due to accidental poisoning.[14] Hate crime laws debate Main article: Hate crime#Justifications for hate crime laws Penalty-enhancement hate crime laws are traditionally justified on the grounds that, in Chief Justice Rehnquist's words, "this conduct is thought to inflict greater individual and societal harm.... bias-motivated crimes are more likely to provoke retaliatory crimes, inflict distinct emotional harms on their victims, and incite community unrest."[15] Some people object to penalty-enhancement and federal prosecution laws because they believe they offer preferred protection to certain individuals over others.[16] There is less opposition to data collection statutes. Supremacism, however, goes much further. A supremacist not only holds that any evidence and reasoning for his or her beliefs is superior to any other, but that those holding such beliefs have rights over those who do not. Attempts at justification Following the development of theories such as evolution and eugenics, supremacists have sought scientific justification for their views through notions such as Social Darwinism. The most notorious and far-reaching example is probably the Nazi belief in an Aryan master race, which ultimately led to the the Holocaust. Historical examples Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party was perhaps the best-known and documented organization in history with fundamental principles of racial supremacy. They believed in the establishment of an Aryan empire throughout Europe and Russia, where all non-Germans would be exterminated or become a slave race. Following the U.S. Civil War, southern whites and former Confederates formed the secret society known as the Ku Klux Klan. They preached Anglo Protestant Supremacy over all other races, as well as over Jews and Catholics. MEET THE VICTIMS: PREGNANT VICTIM: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6bd68wJtTtU&sdig=1 http://www.freedomfchs.com/ http://www.wethepeoplewillnotbechipped.com/phpfusion/viewpage.php?page_id=21 http://www.rob-profile.com/ http://www.biochipped.com.p3digital.com/index.htm Stop Neurological Weapons Experimentation on unwitting citizens http://americancognitivelibertiesassoc.org/default.aspx http://www.freedomfchs.com/ http://asoft109.accrisoft.com/oasis/index.php?submenu=about&src=gendocs&link=AboutOasisTurningPoint&category=Main http://electromagnetic-waves.com/default.aspx http://www.mindcontrol-victims.eu http://www.who.int/peh-emf/en/ http://www.catchcanada.org http://www.catchus.org http://www.govharass.com http://www.stopcovertwar.com http://www.multistalkervictims.org http://www.slavery.org.uk http://www.mindjustice.org http://www.exoticwarfare.com/ http://american-justice.us www.eharassment.ca http://www.mk-resistance.com/ http://www.raven1.net http://www.wanttoknow.info/index.shtml •www.shoestringradio.net •www.shoestringradio.net/policewhoknow.txt •www.shoestringradio.net/docswhoknow.txt •www.catchcanada.org •www.gangstalking.org •www.eharassment.ca •www.mindcontrolforums.com •www.americancognitivelibertiesassoc.org •www.stoporganizedstalking.org •www.gangstalkingworld.com •www.psychologicalharassment.com •www.govharass.com •www.us-government-torture.com •www.us-government-torture.com/Larson%20Report%20Edit.pdf •www.afafa.org •www.surveillanceissues.com •www.rich-essence.com •www.projectcensored.org •www.thematrixdeciphered.com •www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mkultra •www.wikipedia.org/wiki/mind_control •www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaslighting •www.wikipedia.org/wiki/cointelpro •www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Olson •http://archive.democrats.com/view.cfm?id=1275 •www.rob-profile.com •www.jbhfile.com/index.html •www.wanttoknow.info/mindcontrol10pg •www.wanttoknow.info/emailmk •www.wanttoknow.info/mindcontrolinformation#mindcontrols ummaries •www.webspawner.com/users/perpbuster •www.bugsweeps.com/info/electronic_harassment.html •www.exoticwarfare.com •www.exoticwarfareproof.org •www.amnestyusa.org/Reports_Statements_and_Issue_Briefs/ Torture_and_the_Law/page.do?id=1107981&n1=3&n2=38&n3= 1052 •https://takeaction.amnestyusa.org/site/apps/ka/sd/donor.asp? c=goJTI0OvElH&b=1299907&en=egIELPPxFcLGKPPyFjKMKO MwGbJRJ9NGLiJNJSMyEgJTLYMEIuH •www.bushcommission.org/?q=node/34 •http://emhdf.com/countermeasures.html •www.9-11themotherofallblackoperations.blogspot.com •www.911truth.org •www.ghost-writers.com •www.cdt.org/wiretap/wiretap_overview.html •www.nexusmagazine.com/articles/BraveNewWorld.html •www.mnwelldir.org/docs/history/experiments.htm •www.angelicharpfoundation.org/index.htm •www.i-sis.org.uk/BW.php •www.brendanmichaeljames.com/index.html •www.prwatch.org •www.slavery.org.uk/pinneo1.htm •www.icdc.com/~paulwolf/cointelpro/churchfinalreportIIIa.htm •www.controlledamerica.itgo.com/index.html •www.ratical.org/ratville/CAH/cahCAH.html •www.duprevent.com •www.eff.org •www.freedomforceinternational.org/freedom.cfm?fuseaction =home •www.angelfire.com/or/mctrl •http://cgkd.anu.edu.au/menus/PDFs/JMEIntHumRandME.pdf# search=%22ethics%2 •www.newstarget.com/019189.html •www.layinstitute.org •www.proliberty.com/observer/20070105.htm •www.conspiracyarchive.com/NWO/microchip_implants_mind _control.htm •www.moveon.org •www.mkzine.com •http://myweb.cableone.net/mtilton/thomas.html •www.peaceinspace.org •www.whale.to/b/patton.html •www.psyop.org •www.saveourcivilliberties.org/en/static/contact.shtml •www.rsf.org/rubrique.php3?id_rubrique=20 •www.seaspower.com/EnergyDisclosureDec122003.htm •www.southeasternchristianassociation.org •www.sysos.co.uk/thatfund.htm •www.ccr-ny.org/v2/GermanCase2006/extendedsummary.asp •www.bvalphaserver.com/modules.php?name=Content&pa= showpage&pid=21 •www.aches-mc.org •www.thememoryhole.org/mil/nl-weapons_terms •http://crownjul1.wordpress.com •www.ncvc.org/ncvc/Main.aspx •www.tortureprevention.net •www.hhs.gov •www.subgenius.com/bigfist/bulldada/X0040_Secret_Undergr ound_W.html •www.usaexposure.com/index.php •www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/Rome_Statute_ICC/romest atute.html •www.worldcantwait.org •www.uruknet.info/?s1=1&p=26044&s2=24 •www.mediarights.org/organization •www.democraticfundamentalism.org •www.deborahinterviews.com •www.kelcom.igs.net/~hosny/index.html •http://biotech.law.lsu.edu/research/index.htm •http://redtape.msnbc.com •www.shoestringradio.net •www.shoestringradio.net/policewhoknow.txt •www.shoestringradio.net/docswhoknow.txt •www.catchcanada.org •www.gangstalking.org •www.eharassment.ca •www.mindcontrolforums.com •www.americancognitivelibertiesassoc.org •www.stoporganizedstalking.org •www.gangstalkingworld.com •www.psychologicalharassment.com •www.govharass.com •www.us-government-torture.com •www.us-government-torture.com/Larson%20Report%20Edit.pdf •www.afafa.org •www.surveillanceissues.com •www.rich-essence.com •www.projectcensored.org •www.thematrixdeciphered.com •www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mkultra •www.wikipedia.org/wiki/mind_control •www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaslighting •www.wikipedia.org/wiki/cointelpro •www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Olson •www.lesliecrawford.cabanova.com •http://archive.democrats.com/view.cfm?id=1275 •www.rob-profile.com •www.jbhfile.com/index.html •www.wanttoknow.info/mindcontrol10pg •www.wanttoknow.info/emailmk •www.wanttoknow.info/mindcontrolinformation#mindcontrols ummaries •www.webspawner.com/users/perpbuster •www.bugsweeps.com/info/electronic_harassment.html •www.exoticwarfare.com •www.exoticwarfareproof.org •www.amnestyusa.org/Reports_Statements_and_Issue_Briefs/ Torture_and_the_Law/page.do?id=1107981&n1=3&n2=38&n3= 1052 •https://takeaction.amnestyusa.org/site/apps/ka/sd/donor.asp? c=goJTI0OvElH&b=1299907&en=egIELPPxFcLGKPPyFjKMKO MwGbJRJ9NGLiJNJSMyEgJTLYMEIuH •www.bushcommission.org/?q=node/34 •http://emhdf.com/countermeasures.html •www.9-11themotherofallblackoperations.blogspot.com •www.911truth.org •www.ghost-writers.com •www.cdt.org/wiretap/wiretap_overview.html •www.nexusmagazine.com/articles/BraveNewWorld.html •www.mnwelldir.org/docs/history/experiments.htm •http://american-justice.us •www.angelicharpfoundation.org/index.htm •www.i-sis.org.uk/BW.php •www.brendanmichaeljames.com/index.html •www.prwatch.org •www.slavery.org.uk/pinneo1.htm •www.icdc.com/~paulwolf/cointelpro/churchfinalreportIIIa.htm •www.controlledamerica.itgo.com/index.html •www.ratical.org/ratville/CAH/cahCAH.html •www.duprevent.com •www.eff.org •www.sosbeevfbi.com •www.freedomforceinternational.org/freedom.cfm?fuseaction =home •www.angelfire.com/or/mctrl •http://cgkd.anu.edu.au/menus/PDFs/JMEIntHumRandME.pdf# search=%22ethics%2 •www.newstarget.com/019189.html •www.layinstitute.org •www.proliberty.com/observer/20070105.htm •www.conspiracyarchive.com/NWO/microchip_implants_mind _control.htm •www.moveon.org •www.mkzine.com •http://myweb.cableone.net/mtilton/thomas.html •www.peaceinspace.org •www.whale.to/b/patton.html •www.psyop.org •www.saveourcivilliberties.org/en/static/contact.shtml •www.rsf.org/rubrique.php3?id_rubrique=20 •www.seaspower.com/EnergyDisclosureDec122003.htm •www.southeasternchristianassociation.org •www.sysos.co.uk/thatfund.htm •www.ccr-ny.org/v2/GermanCase2006/extendedsummary.asp •www.bvalphaserver.com/modules.php?name=Content&pa= showpage&pid=21 •www.aches-mc.org •www.thememoryhole.org/mil/nl-weapons_terms •http://crownjul1.wordpress.com •www.ncvc.org/ncvc/Main.aspx •www.tortureprevention.net •www.hhs.gov •www.subgenius.com/bigfist/bulldada/X0040_Secret_Undergr ound_W.html •www.usaexposure.com/index.php •www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/Rome_Statute_ICC/romest atute.html •www.stalkingvictims.com •www.worldcantwait.org •www.uruknet.info/?s1=1&p=26044&s2=24 •www.mediarights.org/organization •www.democraticfundamentalism.org •www.deborahinterviews.com •www.kelcom.igs.net/~hosny/index.html •http://electromagnetic-waves.com/default.aspx •www.mindcontrol-victims.eu •http://biotech.law.lsu.edu/research/index.htm •http://redtape.msnbc.com ___________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________
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